Until the 1990s, it was generally accepted that medicines were first developed for adults and their use in children was investigated later, if at all. One of the main tasks of hospital pharmacies was the manufacturing of child-appropriate formulations in a more or less makeshift way. The first change came in 1997 with U.S. legislation that rewarded manufacturers to do voluntary pediatric research. Ten years later, the European Union passed legislation that required manufacturers to discuss all pediatric aspects, including formulations, with the regulatory authorities as a condition of starting the registration procedure. In consequence, manufacturers must now cover all age groups, including the youngest ones. So far, pediatric formulations were more a focus for academic researchers. Through the changed regulatory environment, there is now a sudden high commercial demand for age-appropriate formulations. This book begins by highlighting the anatomical, physiological and developmental differences between adults and children of different ages. It goes on to review the existing technologies and attempts to draw a roadmap to better, innovative formulations, in particular for oral administration. The regulatory, clinical, ethical and pharmaceutical framework is also addressed.
A reproduction of the Edexcel a-level mathematics formula booklet. Photographs have been added to the formula booklet to make it more pleasing to read, rather than just the plain formulae. All formulae in this booklet are available for free from Edexcel directly in a pdf format. M1 and M4 have no given formulae within the formula booklet. This book also contains statistical tables relevant to the S1 through S4 specifications. This is an economy black and white print of a book intended to be viewed in full colour, thus quality will not be of the same standard as that of other editions.
These steam tables have been calculated using the international standard for the thermodynamic properties of water and steam, the IAPWS-IF97 formulation, and the international standards for transport and other properties. In addition, the complete set of equations of IAPWS-IF97 is presented including all supplementary backward equations adopted by IAPWS between 2001 and 2005 for fast calculations of heat cycles, boilers, and steam turbines.